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Terms of Use

Cambridge University Press is a syndicate of the University of Cambridge and our principal place of business is at the Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge, CB2 8RU.

By using the Cambridge University Press website at and by registering to access the Cambridge Journals Online service (CJO) you are indicating that you accept the terms and conditions set out below. Users who do not accept these terms of use are not authorised to use or continue using this website.

We may amend these terms of use at any time and any revised version will be effective immediately that it is displayed on this website.

In the event of any comments or questions concerning these terms of use, please contact us by e-mailing The Legal Services Director at or writing to The Legal Services Director at The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge, CB2 8RU, England.

Tables of contents and abstracts of articles may be accessed free of charge by all users of CJO.

The full texts of journal articles (referred to below as 'the Materials') may be accessed only by authorised users. 'Authorised User' is defined as either:

An individual who is authorised to access the CJO content through a secure network or proxy server (subject to the terms and conditions detailed below) at a subscribing institution, via his/her affiliation with a subscribing institution as a current student, faculty member, library patron, or employee

An individual who holds a valid electronic personal subscription

An individual who is a member of a society that has arranged for access to CJO content for its current members

An individual who has purchased access to a single article on CJO, and who accesses that article within the allotted timeframe

Institutional Access

To qualify as an 'authorised user' of the materials, your institution must have a valid electronic subscription to the relevant journal. Appropriate IP address range(s) equivalent to that institution's site must be registered to activate each electronic subscription. Responsibility for the allocation of the IP addresses to a subscription lies with the registrant (not the publisher or any internet service provider).

Where requested and/or approved by an Institution in advance, we may grant administration rights to the Institution's CJO account to one or more third parties in order to assist the Institution in carrying out its administrative tasks. Such third parties may include, but not be restricted to, a third party designated by the Institution, a Cambridge University Press employee, or a third party agent acting on behalf of Cambridge. All such third parties shall keep the account details confidential and shall, as applicable, comply with the terms and conditions of use detailed herein.

Consortia, Single Site and Multi-Site Licenses

Consortia, single site, and multi-site licenses are also available. A single site is defined as a single physical campus of an institution containing multiple buildings, with an unlimited number of users accessing from any point within the institution via a secure server. A remote campus is considered a separate entity and would either require its own site licence, or the institution could obtain a multi-site licence for all its campuses. Access via proxy servers is allowed, so long as users are authenticated by the campus's secure server as authorised students, employees, or faculty members affiliated with that campus. Distance learners must be authenticated via proxy by the campus holding the subscription.

Please contact your local representative for more information:
For North America, Canada & Mexico: Andrea Cernichiari,
email:; tel: 212 337 5022.

Outside North America: Lesley Boyle,
email:; tel: +44 (0) 1223 325535

Individual Access

Individuals with valid electronic subscriptions to the relevant journal(s) may also qualify as authorised users by registering a name and a password (see CJO Home Page for details).

Individuals may purchase single articles. This allows the download of a PDF file for personal non-profit use only.

Members of selected societies may obtain individual access via their society membership. Access to full-text CJO content for society members is controlled by a subscriber id linked to a username and password. The subscriber id is assigned by the society and the username and password by the individual member.

Access to and Use of this Website

We own or are licensed to use all intellectual property rights in and to this website and all technical infrastructure relating to it. The Materials are copyright © Cambridge University Press or published under licence from the copyright holder by Cambridge University Press. Users undertake to ensure that the intellectual property rights of the copyright holder and the software owners and the moral rights of the authors of the Materials are not infringed.

Material contained in this website may be downloaded, viewed and printed for personal use or internal circulation within your organisation provided that no trade mark, copyright or other proprietary notices contained in or appearing on such material are removed in whole or in part. In addition, institutional subscribers may also supply another library within the same country with a part of the Material (by post, fax or secure electronic transmission, whereby the electronic file is deleted immediately after printing) for that other library to make a single paper copy of and to further provide to an Authorized User of the said other library for the purposes of research or private study but not for commercial use. All other rights are reserved and users must seek our permission before making any other use of material contained in this website.

In accessing any part of this website, you agree NOT to:

Engage in systematic copying or downloading of the Materials or transmit any part of the Materials by any means to any unauthorised user

Allow copies to be stored or accessed by an unauthorised user

Make the Materials available in any other form or medium or create derivative works, in whole or in part, without the written permission of Cambridge University Press

Alter, amend, modify or change the Materials

Reproduce or exploit any Material, in whole or in part, for commercial gain

Use this website in such a way that disrupts, interferes with or restricts the use of this website by other users;

Upload, display or transmit any materials through this website which are false, offensive, defamatory, threatening, obscene, unlawful or which infringe the rights of any other person anywhere in the world;

Reverse engineer, decompile, copy or adapt any software or other code or scripts forming part of this website or attempt to transmit to or via this website any information that contains a virus, worm, trojan horse or other harmful or disruptive component; and

Change, modify, delete, interfere with or misuse data contained on this website and entered by or relating to any third party user of this website.

Cambridge University Press reserves the right to withdraw the subscriber's access to the Materials in the event of systematic breach of these conditions by any authorised user.

Where an individual or institution is unable to access, or is experiencing difficulties in accessing, CJO, we shall be permitted to access and administer the account in question in order to help resolve such access issues. Access to and administration of the account shall be restricted to designated Cambridge University Press employees and/or restricted third party agents acting on behalf of Cambridge.

Privacy Policy

If you supply personal details to us through this website then you consent to our maintaining, recording, holding and using such personal data in accordance with our Privacy Policy.

Exclusions and Limitations of Liability

This website has been prepared with the aim of providing information about Cambridge University Press, our products and services.

Owing to the nature of the Internet we cannot guarantee that this website or the websites to which it is linked will always be available to users. You should ensure that you have appropriate protection against viruses and other security arrangements in place whilst using the Internet.

Although every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the information on this website was accurate at the time of publication, it is subject to variation at any time without notice and we do not give any warranty that any such information will be accurate or complete at any particular time or at all.

This website and any information or other material contained in it are made available strictly on the basis that you accept it on an 'as is' and 'as available' basis. Where you rely on any information or other material contained in it, you do so entirely at your own risk and you accept that all warranties, conditions and undertakings, express or implied, whether by common law, statute, trade usage, course of dealings or otherwise in respect of this website are excluded to the fullest extent permitted by law.

We exclude all liability whatever, to the fullest extent permitted by law, in respect of any loss or damage resulting or arising from any non-availability or use of this website or of any other website linked to it, or from reliance on the contents of this website or any material or content accessed through it.


Links from this website are provided for information and convenience only and we have no control over and cannot therefore accept responsibility or liability for the content of any linked third party website. We do not endorse any linked website.


This website has been designed and these terms of use shall be governed by and construed in accordance with English law. Any dispute arising out of the accessing or use of this website shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the English courts.